Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are misshapen, enlarged veins that show underneath the surface of the skin. Research shows that a little over 1/3 of the U.S. population develops varicose veins. Veins like these are weakened and swollen from aging, forming a cluster of blue and purple veins, sometimes surrounded by tiny red spider veins.

Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), also recognized as Peripheral vascular disease (PVD), is the narrowing of the blood vessels responsible for carrying blood to your extremities.

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is an abnormal condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in a deep area of your body, like your muscles, usually in the muscles of the legs. Well over half a million people present new cases of DVT each year in the U.S. according to clinical findings. 

The Successful Way to Prepare for Hemodialysis

Permanent kidney failure, recognized as End-stage renal disease (ESRD), is the last stage of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). ESRD requires a kidney transplant to cure completely, however, without an available kidney, dialysis is the best option to sustain life. When your kidneys fail, your body cannot filter your blood, causing a dangerous buildup of electrolytes, such as potassium and phosphorus.  Kidney failure can also cause heart disease, increasing your chances of stroke or heart attack. According to national health information, nearly 500,000 Americans are on dialysis, and in 2013, 10% of these people succumbed to kidney disease. Symptoms of kidney disease are extensive and include:

  • Abdominal mass
  • Bad breath
  • Bone pain
  • Change in mental alertness
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Frequent urination
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Multiple urinary tract infections
  • Insomnia
  • Itchy, dry skin
  • Metallic taste in mouth
  • Muscle cramps
  • Pale skin
  • Poor appetite
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Tissue swelling
  • Hearing loss
  • Vomiting
Causes and Risk Factors

Chronic renal failure can be caused by:

  • ‍Genetic disorders such as Polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, Cystinosis)
  • Diabetic nephropathy 
  • Lupus
  • Hypertension
  • Prolonged urinary tract obstruction
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Interstitial nephritis or pyelonephritis

Diagnosing kidney failure is best done at a routine checkup as kidney failure can go undetected for a long time. After a complete family history evaluation and physical examination, our vascular team uses top-of-the-line, minimally invasive techniques to formulate a proper diagnosis:


Preventing the need for dialysis access due to renal failure starts with managing the other contributing diseases and risk factors:

  • Control your blood sugar level if you have diabetes
  • Maintain a normal blood pressure if you have hypertension
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Do not smoke
  • Control your cholesterol levels

During the hemodialysis process, access to the kidney’s filtration system can be acquired in the following minimally invasive ways:

Arteriovenous (AV) fistula – a piece of vein from your arm or leg is taken and attached to the artery to create new access to a dialysis machine, hemodialyzer.

Arteriovenous (AV) graft – synthetic material forms access from your vein to your artery if your veins are too small for an AV fistula.

Just like any surgical procedure, complications like clotting and infection can arise. Our interventional radiologists are skilled at combatting these complications, contributing to the success of hemodialysis with the following procedures:

Angioplasty and Stenting – a tiny catheter is threaded through to the constricted blood vessel where a balloon inflates the area, allowing for placement of a wire mesh stent to prevent closure of the artery

Thrombolysis a tiny catheter is used to transport a clot dissolving drug to the impaired blood vessel

Thrombectomy - a tiny catheter is used with a surgical blade attached to cut out the clot

Treatment for this condition is done in

Our vascular center, Frontier Medical Care

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