Carotid artery

Carotid artery  or arteries disease is a health problem occurs when the carotid arteries are narrowed or blocked, and this narrowing is caused by the buildup of plaque on the inside of the carotid arteries.

It is another sticky substance made up of a mixture of fats and substances.

Which increases the chance for developing of brain cells death.

Carotid artery  or arteries disease or stenosis occurs slowly.

A stroke could be the first sign of this condition. 

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a temporary lack of blood flow to the brain.

Treatment for carotid artery  or arteries disease  or stenosis usually includes a combination of lifestyle changes.

What is carotid artery disease or stenosis?

The carotid arteries or artery responsible for transporting blood to the brain become narrowed due to the deposition of fats which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs, which reduces the flow of blood to the brain, and this leads to serious health problems, including a stroke that leads to death.

When do you visit the doctor?

Seek emergency care if you have any of the sign of a stroke in   brain. 

Go see a doctor right away, even if it lasts a short time and feels better afterwards. 

You might have had a transient ischemic attack, which is an important sign of an advanced stroke risk in brain.

Tell your doctor if you have risk factors for carotid artery  or arteries disease or stenosis. 

Even if you don’t have any signs, your doctor might recommend aggressive management of your risk factors to prevent a stroke in brain. 

Seeing your doctor early increases your chances of finding and treating your carotid artery  or arteries disease before you experience a disabling stroke in brain.

What are causes of carotid artery disease?

Factors that contribute to clogged carotid arteries or artery  are:

1.smoking which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs. 

2.Blood cholesterol which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs.

3.Hypertension which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs.

4.High blood sugar also increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs.

If you have the following risk factors, you should take steps to prevent carotid artery disease:

1.Diabetes: People with diabetes are four times more likely to develop carotid artery  or arteries disease than those without diabetes which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs.

2.Previous family cases of atherosclerosis which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs.

3.Hypertension which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs.

4.Lack of exercise and a sedentary lifestyle which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs.

5.Metabolic syndrome: a type of fat found in the blood, the level of harmful HDL, high blood pressure, which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs inn carotid arteries. 

Three of above five factors, you might have a disease called metabolic syndrome.

6.Older adults: Your risk of developing atherosclerosis occurs or increases with age.

7.Smoking: Smoking might damage and tighten blood vessels, leading to unhealthy levels of cholesterol in the blood, and raising blood pressure which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs. 

Smoking can also reduce the amount of oxygen reaching the body’s tissues which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs.

8.Cholesterol: LDL and low-density lipoprotein (HDL).

9.Malnutrition: Foods rich in saturated and trans fats, chol, sodium and sugar which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs.

What are symptoms of carotid artery disease?

Carotid artery  or arteries disease often has no sign in its early stages. 

The condition might go unnoticed until it becomes so severe that it deprives your brain of blood, causing a stroke  in brain in carotid artery or arteries disease.

Signs of a stroke or TIA in brain include:

1.Numbness or weakness of the face or extremities, often on one side.

2.Difficulty speaking and understanding.

3.Difficulty seeing in one or both eyes.

4.Dizziness or sudden loss of balance.

5.Sudden severe headache with no known cause.

How is diagnosis of carotid artery disease?

The diagnosis of carotid artery or arteries disease is primarily diagnosed by bilateral ultrasound without pain and without exposure to radiation in carotid artery or arteries disease.

And if the result is not clear, in general, in order to plan a possible treatment, an MRI (without exposure to radiation) is performed, showing the blood vessels or artery of the brain. 

And in exceptional cases (the patient has a pacemaker, an artificial hip or an artificial knee) a computed tomography (radiation exposure) is performed. 

And one of the most important imaging is:

-Carotid artery dublex scan:

In a duplex scan of the carotid artery disease, the doctor uses a device called a transducer to make pictures of the arteries. 

The transducer sends sound waves that bounce off the blood vessels, then the transducer picks up the sound waves and converts them into images in carotid artery or arteries disease.

Double scanning means that the provider uses two transducers, a second (Doppler) that lets the doctor hear the sound waves sent out by the transducer. 

He can hear how fast the blood is flowing through the blood vessels and in what direction it’s flowing. 

A lack of sound or a weak sound could mean you have a blockage in the flow.

Why do you need a dublex  examination of the carotid artery disease?

You might need this test if your doctor thinks you may have:

– blockage in the carotid artery.

– narrowing of the carotid artery.

The blockage may be caused by a buildup of fatty material (plaque), a blood clot (thrombus), or other substances.

Symptoms of obstruction may include:

1.Dizziness.

2.Confusion.

3.drowsiness.

4.Headache

5.Temporary blindness in one eye.

6.Temporary inability to speak or move.

These symptoms might be early warning of a stroke in brain.

You might also need this test even if you don’t have any warning but your doctor hears an abnormal sound in the artery or arteries of this disease. 

This abnormal sound could mean you have a problem with blood flow in the artery.

Here are other reasons to perform this examination:

1.To see how well blood flows after an artery is removed, this might be a procedure to open an artery  or arteries (angioplasty) or surgery to bypass a blocked artery or arteries of this disease.

2.To see how well blood is flowing before major heart surgery, this might be surgery to repair or replace a valve.

3.To find out where clotted blood (hematoma) collects.

4.To see if the artery  or arteries wall in blood vessels has split, this might block or weaken the artery  or arteries wall. 

What is carotid artery disease treatment? 

• Take prescribed medications.

• Undergo remedial procedures.

Lifestyle change:

To prevent the progression of carotid artery disease, he recommends making lifestyle changes:

1.Quit Smoking .

2.Control of  blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.

3.Regular check-ups.

4.Obtaining the appropriate treatment to bring the harmful fats to less than 100 and the beneficial fats to more than 45 in blood vessels.

5.Eat foods low in fat, and sodium.

6.Getting rid of excess weight.

7.Do exercise regularly for at least 30 minutes most days of the week.

Medicines used to treat carotid artery  or arteries disease in the neck:

All carotid  arteries disease patients should take anti-platelet medication in blood to reduce the risk of stroke in brain and other complications of cardiovascular disease. 

Aspirin is one of the most widely used anti-platelet drugs.

Carotid artery or arteries disease procedures in the neck:

If you have symptoms related to carotid stenosis, you’ll likely need a carotid endarterectomy or a carotid stent to correct the narrowing  or stenosis in the artery  or arteries and reduce your risk of stroke or disease in brain. 

Your doctor will evaluate you to recommend the best treatment for your condition.

If you have asymptomatic carotid artery  or arteries stenosis or disease in blood vessels, Your doctor will evaluate your examination results and risk status to make a recommendation.

Carotid endarterectomy:

Carotid endarterectomy is the traditional surgical treatment for carotid occlusive disease or stenosis andd decrease blood flow. 

It has been shown to be beneficial for patients with symptomatic carotid artery  or arteries stenosis or disease of 50% or more, and for patients without symptoms of 60% or more.

Carotid endarterectomy is performed under general anaesthesia. 

During the procedure, an incision is made in the neck at the site of the carotid artery or arteries blockage or stenosis disease in blood vessels.

The surgeon removes the plaque from the artery or vessels or carotid and when finished, the surgeon sews the vessel closed in artery disease.

  Blood flow to the brain is restored through its normal course in blood vessels .

Carotid artery  or arteries stent:

The procedure is done while the patient is awake but under local anesthesia. 

During the procedure, guided by X-rays, the catheter is positioned through the blood vessel and guided into the carotid artery  or arteries disease or stenosis at the site of the blockage of carotid artery or vessels.

The balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is then inflated for a few seconds to open and widen the carotid artery or arteries disease. 

A stent is placed in the artery and opened to fit the size of the artery in blood vessels or carotid artery or arteries disease. 

The stent is permanently in place to support the artery  or arteries walls and keep it open.

Research has shown that carotid stenting is as safe and effective as carotid endarterectomy, but is less risky in artery disease.

How to protection aganist carotid artery  or arteries disease or stenosis?

There are some tips to prevent infection with this disease, which are:

1.Reducing smoking, as nicotine irritates the lining of the artery, in addition to the need to maintain a healthy weight, so is not vulnerable to diabetes and blood pressure in blood vessels which increase the risk of it and formatiom of plaque occurs in carotid artery or arteries.

2.Limit the intake of fatty foods, increase the intake of fruits and vegetables, and reduce the intake of salty foods in artery disease.

3.Maintaining a constant level of exercise, attention to follow-up and treatment of chronic diseases, and maintaining the level of sugar in the blood at a rate that does not harm the body from carotid arteries or artery disease in blood vessels.

Finally, you should know that the supply of brain or arteries i head is a much medical importance because it can lead to blockages of blood supply to brain and its death.