Atherosclerosis – What are symptoms of atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the rest of the body (arterioles) become thick and stiff, sometimes blocking blood flow to organs and tissues.
The healthy arteries are flexible and soft.
however over time, the walls of the arteries may also harden, a ailment commonly referred to as atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis is a sort of hardening of the arteries.
Atherosclerosis is the buildup of fat, cholesterol and other materials in and at the partitions of your arteries. those build-ups are referred to as plaques (which may be cholesterol).
those plaques or hardening (which may be cholesterol) of atherosclerosis disease can slender the arteries and block blood go with the flow.
These plaques may also break off, causing a blood clot.
Although atherosclerosis is usually a heart problem, it may affect vessels anywhere in yours.
But it can be treated. Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent atherosclerosis.
What is atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is a gradual process in which substances containing fatty acids and cholesterol accumulate on the artery wall, which leads to a narrowing of the artery and may even block it completely.
Atherosclerosis is a disorder as a result of the development of layers of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the vessels.
The process of atherosclerosis disease (hardening or plaque) is called calcification, because when performing surgery on an artery like this, we find a hardened substance, sometimes close to white, called calc, where the development of these deposits leads to narrowing and slow blockage of blood float in the artery, and this disorder usually influences large or medium blood vessels.
What are types of atherosclerosis?
Arterial stenosis atherosclerosis disease (hardening or plaque) may affect many arteries in the body, including the arteries of the cerebrum,arms, legs, pelvis, and kidneys, each with a name according to the affected these vessel:
1.Coronary Artery Disease result of atherosclerosis disease (hardening or plaque) : It is the buildup of plaque and hardening of the arteries.
2.Peripheral artery disease result of atherosclerosis disease (hardening or plaque) is the buildup of plaque (which may be cholesterol) in arteries of the legs, but it can also build up in the arms or pelvis.
3.Carotid artery disease result of atherosclerosis disease (hardening or plaque) is the buildup of plaque in the arteries of the neck, which reduces flow to the cerebrum.
4.Renal arteries stenosis result of atherosclerosis disease (hardening or plaque) is the buildup of plaque in the arteries that provide blood to the kidneys.
5.Vertebral artery disease is a hardening of the arteries that provide blood to the back of the cerebrum.
6.Mesenteric arteries ischemia result of atherosclerosis disease (hardening or buildup plaque), is the accumulate of plaques (which may be cholesterol) in the arteries that provide blood to the intestines.
What are risk factors of atherosclerosis?
There are many factors for atherosclerosis.
Things can be done to eliminate some factors and other factors are out of control.
Risk factors that can be controlled or avoided include:
2.High cholesterol levels.
5.Weight gain, especially in the abdominal area.
6.Not doing exercise.
7.Eating too much saturated fat, such as butter, and not eating enough fruits and vegetables.
Here are some important risk factor that cannot be avoided:
1.Having close relatives with atherosclerosis.
How atherosclerosis develops?
Atherosclerosis in a complex manner, but the main event appears to be recurrent insidious damage to the inner lining of the artery endothelium, through various mechanisms,
1.Physical distress due to disturbed flow (such as at the sites where arteries branch, especially in people with high pressure).
2.Inflammatory severity of the immune system (as occurs in cigarette smokers).
3.Chemical abnormalities in the stream (such as high cholesterol levels or high sugar, as occurs in diabetes).
4.Infection with certain bacteria or viruses (such as Chlamydia pneumoniae or cytomegalovirus) may increase inflammation in the inner lining of the artery and also lead to atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis begins when a diseased artery wall releases chemical signals that cause certain types of white cells to stick to the artery.
These cells enter the artery wall, where they turn into foam cell that collect cholesterol and other fatty substances othor than cholesterol.
It stimulates the growth of smooth muscle cell in the artery wall.
Over time, these foamy, fat-laden cells build up and form macular deposits (atheromas, also called buildup plaques) with a fibrous covering in the lining of the arteries walls.
Over time, calcium builds up in plaques.
Plaques (which may be cholesterol) may spread to arteries.
Medium and large, but they usually begin where the arteries branch.
What are causes of atherosclerosis?
There are many reasons that lead to atherosclerosis of artery, and we will discuss through the following lines about the most famous of these causes, as follows:
1.High levels of harmful cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood contribute greatly to the occurrence of atherosclerosis(plaque) and the difficulty of blood reaching.
2.the heart and various organ.
3.The accumulation of fat in the coronary arteries, which leads to a lack of oxygen-rich blood.
4.Stiffness and hardening of the arteries.
5.Smoking of all kinds.
6.Uncontrolled severe high pressure.
7.Diabetes, as the continuous high level of sugar leads to coronary arteries imbalances.
8.Exposure to excessive stress, nervous agitation, and constant intellectual stress.
9.Genetic factor that also play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis(plaque).
10.Overweight and obesity, which is one of the most important causes of cardiac attack, is also considered a risk factor. Because it is usually associated with high pressure, diabetes.
11.Not committing any physical activity and lack of proper exercise.
What are symptoms of atherosclerosis?
Symptom will be based on:
1.The location of the affected artery.
2.Whether the affected arteries narrows gradually or becomes blocked suddenly.
Symptom of progressive stenosis:
In progressive stenosis, atherosclerosis(plaque) usually causes no symptom until the artery is narrowed from the inside by more than 70%.
The first symptom of a narrowed arteries may be cramps at times when the blood does not meet the tissue’s need for O2.
For example, during exercise, a person may feel chest pain or discomfort because the amount of oxygen to the heart is not enough.
This pain (angina) occurs within minutes after the person stops exertion.
When walking, the person may feel cramps in the legs (intermittent claudication) because the amount of oxygen supply to the legs is insufficient and if the arteries that supply them are narrowed.
If one or both kidneys are supplied with blood, kidney failure or dangerously high pressurecan occur.
Symptoms of sudden blockage in the arteries:
If the arteries supplying blood coronary arteries suddenly become blocked, a cardiac attacks can occur, and blockages in the arteries supplying blood to the brain can lead to a stroke.
What is diagnosis of atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis(buildup plaque) is diagnosed through a physical examination, through the results of which the following tests are approved:
1.blood tests can diagnose atherosclerosis(buildup plaque).
Blood tests are done to check the levels of sugar and cholesterol in the blood.
A C-reactive protein test may also be done to check for the presence of a protein associated with arteritis.
2.Echocardiogram can diagnose atherosclerosis(buildup plaque).
This test uses sound waves to show flow through the heart.
3.Ankle-brachial index can diagnose atherosclerosis(buildup plaque).
This test is done to check for hardening of the arteries in the legs and feet, and the difference between the ankle and arm measurements may be due to peripheral vascular disease, which is usually caused by atherosclerosis.
4.Electrocardiogram (EKG) can diagnose atherosclerosis(buildup plaque).
This test measures the heart’s electrical activity by attaching electrical sensors to the chest, arms, or legs.
These sensors are connected via wires to a device that displays or prints test lead to on a screen. An ECG can help determine if flow is impaired.
Other imaging tests
1.Magnetic resonance angiography or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) may be used to study the condition of your arteries.
These tests show narrowed arteries or aneurysms.
2.ankle index (ABI) test can help to diagnose atherosclerosis(buildup plaque).
This test compares pressure in the ankle and arm using a pressure monitor and an ultrasound machine.
3.Coronary calcium scan can help to diagnose atherosclerosis(buildup plaque).
It is a CT scan of the heart that measures the amount of calcium in the walls of the coronary arteries.
If there is calcium accumulation or calcifications, this indicates atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
What are methods of treating atherosclerosis?
There are many ways to treat a heart attacks.
Based on the degree of diagnosis of the condition, an appropriate treatment plan is determined.
Among these treatment methods used by the doctor specialized in “Doxpert Health” are the following:
The doctor may prescribe some therapeutic drugs that work to treat clotting conditions, such as aspirin, as it contributes to a decrease in clotting and prescribe some liquidity drugs, as it is one of the best drugs that have a major role in reducing clotting again and avoiding hardening of the arteries.
It also contributes significantly to maintaining cardiac health, reducing the symptom of a heart attack, and avoiding strokes again.
Prescribing some types of medications that work to regulate the level of cholesterol in the blood and reduce its rise to avoid cases of atherosclerosis.
Prescribing beta-blockers, as these blockers help lower heart rate and pressure, and also help reduce risks of heart attacks and some arrhythmia problems.
Description of some treatments for regulating platelets, which work to regulate their percentage in yours.
Prescribing some types of pain relievers.
Where doctors resort to surgical intervention in the event of a blockage in arteries that threatens the health of an organ, or if the symptom is very severe, and the following options include:
1.Angioplasty and stent placement, more accurately known as cardiac catheterization, in which the doctor inserts a long and thin tube, at the end of which is a balloon that compresses the deposits on the walls of arteries, opening its course, and sometimes a stent or mesh is placed to keep the arteries open.
2.Endarterectomy to remove plaque (which may be cholesterol) accumulated on the walls and treat atherosclerosis.
3.Bypass surgery this type of surgery is in which blood is diverted from a blocked or narrowed artery, and blood is allowed to flow around it, using a vessel from another part of yours or through a tube made of synthetic fibers.
What are the complications of atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis leads to several complications, including: heart disease such as heart attack or angina pectoris, stroke of the artery feeding the lower extremities, in addition to high blood pressure, poor vitality and function of the various organs of the yours such as poor movement, or weakness.
In vision, and higher brain functions such as memory impairment from atherosclerosis of an artery.
How to prevent atherosclerosis?
To prevent the early appearance of atherosclerosis, or at least reduce its severity, the following can be done:
– Quit eating fatty foods that contain a high percentage of cholesterol, such as sweets, eggs, butter and meat.
– Maintaining physical exercises such as walking or swimming.
– Quit Smoking.
– Increase the intake of fresh fruits and vegetables.
– Controlling yours weight and fighting obesity.
-Early and effective treatment of hyertension, as well as early and effective treatment of diabetes.
-Early diagnosis and treatment of kidney problems, as well as early and effective treatment of excess fat and cholesterol.
What are foods that may cause atherosclerosis?
1-eggs may lead to atherosclerosis of arteries (plaque).
Eggs are low in fat but high in cholesterol result in atherosclerosis disease (buildup plaque), as one 100-gram egg contains 373 milligrams of cholesterol, according to the US Department of Agriculture.
This amount usually has little effect on cholesterol levels for most people, but it may affect when overdone result in atherosclerosis disease (plaque or hardening).
Eat eggs for healthy people or people with heart disease or diabetes, who should monitor their dietary cholesterol intake.
2- Fried foods my lead to atherosclerosis disease of arteries (plaque).
Eating a lot of foods rich in saturated or trans fats result in atherosclerosis disease (plaque), which are bad and not healthy fats, can lead to high cholesterol levels and excess cholesterol buildup in the arteries, causing atherosclerosis.
3-Meat may lead to atherosclerosis of arteries (plaque).
Some foods, most notably meat, contain not healthy saturated fats result in atherosclerosis disease (plaque), which is one of the causes of atherosclerosis.
Here is a list of the most rich meats in saturated fats:
1.Steaks or steak lead to atherosclerosis disease (plaque).
2. The hamburger lead toatherosclerosis disease (plaque).
3.Sausage or sausage result in atherosclerosis disease (plaque).
4. the ribs result in atherosclerosis disease (plaque).
5.Chicken or turkey skin result in atherosclerosis disease (plaque).
6.Most cold cuts.
Nutritionists recommend replacing meats rich in unhealthy fats with white meats, such as skinless chicken or turkey and fish, because they contain less fat.
4- Dairy products lead to atherosclerosis disease of arteries (plaque).
Creamy dairy products provide great taste, but they’re also high in saturated fat, notably:
1.Whole milk may lead to atherosclerosis of arteries (plaque).
4.Butter may lead to atherosclerosis of arteries (plaque).
So; Nutritionists recommend swapping full-fat dairy products for skim milk or yogurt and low-fat cheese to eliminate or reduce saturated fat.
5- Cooking oils may lead to atherosclerosis of arteries (plaque).
There are two types of unhealthy cooking oils lead to atherosclerosis disease (plaque or hardening):
A- Hydrogenated oils.